**Operator:** An operator specifies an operation on the data which yields a value.

**Operand:** Data item on which operator act is called operand.

Some operators need two operands while some need only one. C language provides the following operators:

- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Conditional Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- sizeof Operator
- Arithmetic Operators

In this chapter, we are discussing Arithmetic Operators. The following table lists the arithmetic operators.

Operator | Name |
---|---|

`+` |
addition |

`-` |
subtraction |

`*` |
multiplication |

`/` |
division |

`%` |
modulus operator |

The first four operators work as usual, but you might not have come across the `%`

operator. The `%`

operator is known as the modulus operator or modular division operator. Modulus operator (`%`

) is used to calculate the remainder. For example `9 % 2`

would produce `1`

because when `9`

is divided by `2`

it leaves a remainder of `1`

. The important thing to note that is that it works only with integers, you can’t apply the `%`

operator on `float`

and `double`

types.

All the operators listed in the table above are binary operators because they require two operands to operate. But `+`

and `-`

operators have their unary versions too, For example:

`+x`

or `-y`

In this case, the `+`

operator has no effect on the number `x`

but, the `-`

operator changes the sign of the operand `y`

.

## Integer arithmetic

When both operands are integers then the result of the arithmetic operation between two integer operands yields an integer value. Let’s take two variables `a`

and `b`

, such that `a = 10`

and `b = 4`

. The following table shows the result of arithmetic operations performed on `a`

and `b`

.

Expression | Result |
---|---|

`a + b` |
`14` |

`a - b` |
`6` |

`a * b` |
`40` |

`a / b` |
`2` |

`a % b` |
`2` |

We know that `10/4 = 2.5`

, but because both operands are integers, the decimal value is truncated. For division and modulus operator to work the second operand i.e `b`

must be non-zero, otherwise, the program will crash.

The following program demonstrates integer arithmetic in action:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 |
#include<stdio.h> int main() { // Declare and initialize variable a and b int a = 11, b = 4; printf("a + b = %d\n", a + b); printf("a - b = %d\n", a - b); printf("a * b = %d\n", a * b); printf("a / b = %d\n", a / b); // because both operands are integer result will be an integer printf("a %% b = %d\n", a % b); // % operator returns the remainder of 11/4 i.e 3 // Signal to operating system everything works fine return 0; } |

**Expected Output:**

1 2 3 4 5 |
a + b = 15 a - b = 7 a * b = 44 a / b = 2 a % b = 3 |

Pay close attention to how `%`

character is used in the `printf()`

statement in line 17. We already know that `%`

character is used to specify conversion specification inside the control string. To print a single `%`

character in the console we have to write `%`

two times.

## Floating Point Arithmetic

An operation between two floating point operands always yields a floating point result. Let’s take two variables `a`

and `b`

, such that `a = 11.2`

and `b = 4.5`

. The following table shows the result of arithmetic operations performed on `a`

and `b`

.

Expression | Result |
---|---|

`a + b` |
`15.7` |

`a - b` |
`6.700000` |

`a * b` |
`50.400000` |

`a / b` |
`2.488889` |

The following program demonstrates floating point arithmetic in action.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 |
#include<stdio.h> int main() { // Declare and initialize variable a and b double a = 9.2, b = 2.1; printf("a + b = %f\n", a + b); printf("a - b = %f\n", a - b); printf("a * b = %f\n", a * b); printf("a / b = %f\n", a / b); // Signal to operating system everything works fine return 0; } |

**Expected Output:**

1 2 3 4 |
a + b = 11.300000 a - b = 7.100000 a * b = 19.320000 a / b = 4.380952 |

**Note:** The `%`

modulus operator can’t be used with floating point constants.

## Mixed mode arithmetic

An operation between an integer and a floating point yields a floating point result. In this operation, the integral value is first converted to floating point value then the operation is performed. Let’s take two variables `a`

and `b`

, such that `a = 14`

and `b = 2.5`

. The following table shows arithmetic operations performed on `a`

and `b`

.

Expression | Result |
---|---|

`a + b` |
`16.500000` |

`a - b` |
`12.500000` |

`a * b` |
`35.000000` |

`a / b` |
`5.600000` |

As we can see, when `14`

is divided by `2.5`

the fractional part is not lost because arithmetic operation between an `int`

and a `double`

yields a `double`

value. So we can use Mixed mode arithmetic to solve the problem we encountered while dividing `10/4`

. To get the correct answer simply make one of the operands involved in the operation a floating point number.

For example, `10/4.0`

or `10.0/4`

both will give the correct result i.e `2.5`

.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 |
#include<stdio.h> int main() { printf("%f\n", 10/4.0); printf("%f\n", 10.0/4); // Signal to operating system everything works fine return 0; } |

**Expected Output:**

1 2 |
2.500000 2.500000 |

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